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Technology Competency Glossary

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Compiled from http://www.webopedia.com 3.21.11 except where noted

Term

Definition

Adware

Adware is the common name used to describe software that is given to the user with advertisements embedded in the application. Adware is considered a legitimate alternative offered to consumers who do not wish to pay for software. There are many ad-supported programs, games or utilities that are distributed as adware (or freeware).  Today we have a growing number of software developers who offer their goods as "sponsored" freeware (adware) until you pay to register. If you're using legitimate adware, when you stop running the software, the ads should disappear, and you always have the option of disabling the ads by purchasing a registration key.
Another use of the phrase adware is to describe a form of spyware that collects information about the user in order to display advertisements in the Web browser. Unfortunately, some applications that contain adware track your Internet surfing habits in order to serve ads related to you. When the adware becomes intrusive like this, then we move it into the spyware category and it then becomes something you should avoid for privacy and security reasons.

Attachments

Any file (text, image, or sound) that is delivered with an email message.

Botnet

Short for robot network. A botnet is a collection of software agents, or robots, that run autonomously and automatically on a collection of compromised computers (called zombie computers). The software, usually installed via drive-by downloads, exploits web browser vulnerabilities to propagate worms, Trojan horses, or backdoors, under a common command-and-control infrastructure. A botnet's originator (aka "bot herder" or "bot master") can control the group of robots remotely, usually for nefarious purposes. Newer bots can automatically scan their environment and propagate themselves using vulnerabilities and weak passwords. Generally, the more vulnerabilities a bot can scan and propagate through, the more valuable it becomes to a botnet controller. Bots allow the originator to steal computing resources.

Browser

Short for Web browser, a software application used to locate and display Web pages. The two most popular browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox. Both of these are graphical browsers, which means that they can display graphics as well as text. In addition, most modern browsers can present multimedia information, including sound and video, though they require plug-ins for some formats.

Byte

 (kilo, mega, giga, tera) An abbreviation for binary term, a unit of storage capable of holding a single character. On almost all modern computers, a byte is equal to 8 bits. Large amounts of memory are indicated in terms of kilobytes (1,024 bytes), megabytes (1,048,576 bytes), and gigabytes (1,073,741,824 bytes).

Cookie

A cookie is the term given to describe a type of message that is given to a Web browser by a Web server.  The main purpose of a cookie is to identify users and possibly prepare customized Web pages or to save site login information for you. When you enter a Web site using cookies, you may be asked to fill out a form providing personal information; like your name, e-mail address, and interests. This information is packaged into a cookie and sent to your Web browser, which then stores the information for later use. The next time you go to the same Web site, your browser will send the cookie to the Web server. The message is sent back to the server each time the browser requests a page from the server.

Copyright

The legal right granted to an author, composer, playwright, publisher, or distributor to exclusive publication, production, sale, or distribution of a literary, musical, dramatic, or artistic work.

CPU

Pronounced as separate letters it is the abbreviation for central processing unit. The CPU is the brains of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the central processor, but more commonly called processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. On large machines, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. On personal computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor. Since the 1970's the microprocessor class of CPUs has almost completely overtaken all other CPU implementations. The CPU itself is an internal component of the computer. Modern CPUs are small and square and contain multiple metallic connectors or pins on the underside. The CPU is inserted directly into a CPU socket, pin side down, on the motherboard. Each motherboard will support only a specific type or range of CPU so you must check the motherboard manufacturer's specifications before attempting to replace or upgrade a CPU. Modern CPUs also have an attached heat sink and small fan that go directly on top of the CPU to help dissipate heat.

Cyberbullying

A slang term used to describe online harassment, which can be in the form of flames, comments made in chat rooms, the sending of offensive or cruel e-mail, or even harassing others by posting on blogs, Web pages or social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook or MySpace.

Cyberspace

A metaphor for describing the non-physical terrain created by computer systems. Online systems, for example, create a cyberspace within which people can communicate with one another (via e-mail), do research, or simply window shop. Like physical space, cyberspace contains objects (files, mail messages, graphics, etc.) and different modes of transportation and delivery. Unlike real space, though, exploring cyberspace does not require any physical movement other than pressing keys on a keyboard or moving a mouse. Some programs, particularly computer games, are designed to create a special cyberspace, one that resembles physical reality in some ways but defies it in others. In its extreme form, called virtual reality, users are presented with visual, auditory, and even tactile feedback that makes cyberspace feel real. The term was coined by author William Gibson in his sci-fi novel Neuromancer (1984).

Email:

Software for creating, sending, receiving and organizing electronic mail, or email.

Facebook

The name of a social networking site (SNS) that connects people with friends and others who work, study and live around them. People use Facebook to keep in touch with friends, post photos, share links and exchange other information. Facebook users can see only the profiles of confirmed friends and the people in their networks.

Fair use

A U.S. legal term for uses of content that are considered valid defenses to copyright infringement, such as for criticism or educational purposes. Fair use is based on case-law precedents derived from general principles. The term is often misapplied to refer to the reasonable expectations of consumers to be able to use purchased content on all owned devices.

Firewall

A system that prevents unauthorized use and access to your computer. A firewall can be either hardware or software. Hardware firewalls provide a strong degree of protection from most forms of attack coming from the outside world and can be purchased as a stand-alone product or in broadband routers. Unfortunately, when battling viruses, worms and Trojans, a hardware firewall may be less effective than a software firewall, as it could possibly ignore embedded worms in out-going e-mails and see this as regular network traffic. For individual home users, the most popular firewall choice is a software firewall.  A good software firewall will protect your computer from outside attempts to control or gain access your computer, and usually provides additional protection against the most common Trojan programs or e-mail worms. The downside to software firewalls is that they will only protect the computer they are installed on, not a network. It is important to remember that, on its own, a firewall is not going to rid you of your computer virus problems, but when used in conjunction with regular operating system updates, and a good anti-virus scanning software, it will add some extra security and protection for your computer or network.

Font

A design for a set of characters. A font is the combination of typeface and other qualities, such as size, pitch, and spacing. For example, Times Roman is a typeface that defines the shape of each character. Within Times Roman, however, there are many fonts to choose from -- different sizes, italic, bold, and so on. (The term font is often used incorrectly as a synonym for typeface.) The height of characters in a font is measured in points, each point being approximately 1/72 inch. The width is measured by pitch, which refers to how many characters can fit in an inch. Common pitch values are 10 and 12.

Hardware

Refers to objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, and chips. In contrast, software is untouchable. Software exists as ideas, concepts, and symbols, but it has no substance. Books provide a useful analogy. The pages and the ink are the hardware, while the words, sentences, paragraphs, and the overall meaning are the software. A computer without software is like a book full of blank pages -- you need software to make the computer useful just as you need words to make a book meaningful.

Hub

A common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets.

Hyperlink  

An element in an electronic document that links to another place in the same document or to an entirely different document. Typically, you click on the hyperlink to follow the link. Hyperlinks are the most essential ingredient of all hypertext systems, including the World Wide Web.

Identity theft

Identity theft is a crime whereby criminals impersonate individuals, usually for financial gain. In today's society, you often need to reveal personal bits of information about yourself, such as social security numbers, a signature, name, address, phone numbers, and even banking and credit card information. If a thief is able to access this personal information, he or she can use it to commit fraud in your name. With this information the thief could do things such as apply for loans or new credit card accounts. They can then request a billing address change and run up your existing credit card without you knowledge. They can also use counterfeit checks and debit cards, or authorize electronic transfers in your name, to wipe out your bank account. Identity theft can also go beyond this type of a monetary impact. Thieves can use your information to obtain a driver's license or other documentation that would display their photo but your name and information. With these documents thieves could to obtain a job and file fraudulent income tax returns, apply for travel documents, file insurance claims, or even provide your name and mailing address to police and other authorities if involved in other criminal activities.

Intellectual property

Often abbreviated as IP, intellectual property refers to any property that is created using original thought. Traditional intellectual property rights include patents, copyrights and trademarks. Unlike tangible property, rights are not extinguished when the property is destroyed.

Internet

A global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions. Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local services to make available to the global Internet community.

Internet access

A feature of computers and smartphones (such as a modem, cable, or satellite reception) that allow the device to send data to and receive data from the internet.

Internet service provider (ISP)

Short for Internet Service Provider, it refers to a company that provides Internet services, including personal and business access to the Internet. For a monthly fee, the service provider usually provides a software package, username, password and access phone number. Equipped with a modem, you can then log on to the Internet and browse the World Wide Web and USENET, and send and receive e-mail. For broadband access you typically receive the broadband modem hardware or pay a monthly fee for this equipment that is added to your ISP account billing. In addition to serving individuals, ISPs also serve large companies, providing a direct connection from the company's networks to the Internet. ISPs themselves are connected to one another through Network Access Points (NAPs). ISPs may also be called IAPs (Internet Access Providers).

MMOGs

An abbreviation for Massively Multiplayer Online Game where users can interact with each other, share information about the game, team up for missions or quests, make deals, trade items, or plot against other characters.

Multimedia

The use of computers to present text, graphics, video, animation, and sound in an integrated way.

Music piracy

A type of violation of intellectual property and copy right law that occurs (often through peer-to-peer file sharing systems) when music files are obtained illegally or without payment for use.

MySpace

The name of a social networking site (SNS) that consists of a network of member's profiles, Web logs, photos, e-mail, forums, group, and more. MySpace was founded in August 2003 by the Internet company eUniverse.

Patent violation

Usually happens between corporations competing in the same market (e.g. tablet computing) where one company uses the patented technology of another company in violation of  the patent. (A patent is the exclusive right, granted by the government patent office, to make use of an invention or process for a specific period of time, usually 14 years, during which time no other company can use the same invention or process without the originators express permission).

Peripheral

A computer device, such as a CD-ROM drive or printer, that is not part of the essential computer, i.e., the memory and microprocessor. Peripheral devices can be external -- such as a mouse, keyboard, printer, monitor, external Zip drive or scanner -- or internal, such as a CD-ROM drive, CD-R drive or internal modem. Internal peripheral devices are often referred to as integrated peripherals.

Phishing

The act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. The e-mail directs the user to visit a Web site where they are asked to update personal information, such as passwords and credit card, social security, and bank account numbers, that the legitimate organization already has. The Web site, however, is bogus and set up only to steal the user’s information. For example, 2003 saw the proliferation of a phishing scam in which users received e-mails supposedly from eBay claiming that the user??s account was about to be suspended unless he clicked on the provided link and updated the credit card information that the genuine eBay already had. Because it is relatively simple to make a Web site look like a legitimate organizations site by mimicking the HTML code, the scam counted on people being tricked into thinking they were actually being contacted by eBay and were subsequently going to eBay??s site to update their account information. By spamming large groups of people, the "phisher" counted on the e-mail being read by a percentage of people who actually had listed credit card numbers with eBay legitimately.
Phishing, also referred to as brand spoofing or carding, is a variation on "fishing," the idea being that bait is thrown out with the hopes that while most will ignore the bait, some will be tempted into biting.

Plagiarism

Using the words, images, or ideas of another without acknowledging the origin of the material.

Presentation software

Software designed to help users create informative slides that can contain text, graphics, movies, and similar objects. PowerPoint is one example of this type of software. Presentations can be viewed as printouts, directly on a computer, or via video projectors, and are frequently used in business and educational settings for situations like lectures, meetings and product briefings.

Public domain

 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:PD) documents, images, and sound files that are not protected by copyright, trademark, or patent and are freely available for use without fee or permission request. Proper attribution to the author or source of a work, even if it is in the public domain, is still required to avoid plagiarism. The public domain is generally defined (e.g. by the U.S. Copyright Office) as the sum of works that are not copyrighted, i.e. that were not eligible for copyright in the first place, or whose copyright has expired, or that were released into the public domain by the copyright holder.

RAM

Short for Random Access Memory. This is a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is, any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers. In common usage, the term RAM is synonymous with main memory, the memory available to programs. For example, a computer with 8MB RAM has approximately 8 million bytes of memory that programs can use. In contrast, ROM (read-only memory) refers to special memory used to store programs that boot the computer and perform diagnostics. Most personal computers have a small amount of ROM (a few thousand bytes).

Server

A computer or device on a network that manages network resources. There are many different types of servers. File server: a computer and storage device dedicated to storing files. Any user on the network can store files on the server. Print server: a computer that manages one or more printers, and a network server is a computer that manages network traffic. Database server: a computer system that processes database queries.

Sexting

Sending sexual images or messages via the text function on any smart phone or mobile device. These images can be easily forwarded to, or intercepted by, users for whom they were not intended. Unintended use can ruin reputations and employment or scholarship opportunities. If minors (anyone under 18 year of age) are the subject of these images or messages, the activity is also illegal and carries criminal penalties.

Social Networking  

Online interactions intended to create cyberspace communities. Web-based social networking spaces offer a way for individuals or groups to create a profile of themselves, then share that profile with other members of the social networking space. The specific site also provides a variety of ways for users to communicate with others in the space, such as instant messaging and chat rooms, e-mail or site mail (used only use through the service), notes and blogs, file sharing, forums or other types of discussion groups, videos, and so on. Many social networking sites today do offer some form of privacy by allowing its users to choose a public, private or limited viewing profile. On some sites two users must both agree to be "friends" before they can see each others' private profile information. Other sites may not offer this, but will provide options so that let you control how much information is viewable to other members of the service.
People use social networking sites for a huge number of personal reasons. Some may want an easy way to keep in touch with family and friends, some may use it for business or job finding, others may use it for dating or just to find like-minded individuals online.

Software

Computer instructions or data. This is the program that governs what a computer does with input.

Source analysis

Source analysis means to determine the reliability of information through cross-referencing and scrutiny of website content. Careful source analysis calls for examining the ABCs Authority—Why should we believe this author?
What are the author’s qualifications for writing on this topic? Does this author / source have a history of providing accurate information?
Bias—Does the author have an agenda? Does the author have something to sell? Is the author’s approach trying to persuade you to believe something? Does the information generally agree with, or contradict, information you’ve found elsewhere? Is the publisher or web sponsor known for publishing controversial or highly liberally or conservatively slanted material?  (What do you learn when you enter the author’s or publisher’s name into an Internet search engine?) What about ethnic, economic, religious, or ideological perspectives? Currency—What is the publication date? Is it recent (within two years)? If not, what is the likelihood that there will have been changes in this field since the publication date? (i.e. a two year-old technology article will be nearly obsolete because of how fast the field is advancing, whereas the definitive work on quilting may be decades old).    

Spam

Any unsolicited e-mail. Perhaps an acronym for UnSolicited Pornography And Marketing. The Electronic version of unwanted messages that fill email in-boxes like the paper junk mail fills US postal service mail boxes. Spam is generally e-mail advertising for some product sent to a mailing list or newsgroup. In addition to wasting people's time with unwanted e-mail, spam also eats up a lot of network bandwidth. Consequently, there are many organizations, as well as individuals, who have taken it upon themselves to fight spam with a variety of techniques. One is the federal CAN-SPAM act which became law in January 1, 2004.

Spyware

Any software that covertly gathers user information through the user's Internet connection without his or her knowledge, usually for advertising purposes. Spyware applications are typically bundled as a hidden component of freeware or shareware programs that can be downloaded from the Internet; however, it should be noted that the majority of shareware and freeware applications do not come with spyware. Once installed, the spyware monitors user activity on the Internet and transmits that information in the background to someone else. Spyware can also gather information about e-mail addresses and even passwords and credit card numbers.
Spyware is similar to a Trojan horse in that users unwittingly install the product when they install something else. A common way to become a victim of spyware is to download certain peer-to-peer file swapping products that are available today.
Aside from the questions of ethics and privacy, spyware steals from the user by using the computer's memory resources and also by eating bandwidth as it sends information back to the spyware's home base via the user's Internet connection. Because spyware is using memory and system resources, the applications running in the background can lead to system crashes or general system instability.
Because spyware exists as independent executable programs, they have the ability to monitor keystrokes, scan files on the hard drive, snoop other applications, such as chat programs or word processors, install other spyware programs, read cookies, change the default home page on the Web browser, consistently relaying this information back to the spyware author who will either use it for advertising/marketing purposes or sell the information to another party.
Licensing agreements that accompany software downloads sometimes warn the user that a spyware program will be installed along with the requested software, but the licensing agreements may not always be read completely because the notice of a spyware installation is often couched in obtuse, hard-to-read legal disclaimers.

Storage

The capacity of a device to hold and retain data (often synonymous with memory). Storage has comes in many forms over the years and the devices are getting progressively smaller: magnetic tapes, large and small format floppy disks, thumb drives, CD-ROMs, and SD cards are a few examples.

Trojan horse

A destructive program that masquerades as a benign application. Unlike viruses, Trojan horses do not replicate themselves but they can be just as destructive. One of the most insidious types of Trojan horse is a program that claims to rid your computer of viruses but instead introduces viruses onto your computer.
The term comes from the a Greek story of the Trojan War, in which the Greeks give a giant wooden horse to their foes, the Trojans, ostensibly as a peace offering. But after the Trojans drag the horse inside their city walls, Greek soldiers sneak out of the horse's hollow belly and open the city gates, allowing their compatriots to pour in and capture Troy.
A Trojan Horse is full of as much trickery as the mythological Trojan Horse it was named after. The Trojan Horse, at first glance will appear to be useful software but will actually do damage once installed or run on your computer.  Those on the receiving end of a Trojan Horse are usually tricked into opening them because they appear to be receiving legitimate software or files from a legitimate source.  When a Trojan is activated on your computer, the results can vary. Some Trojans are designed to be more annoying than malicious (like changing your desktop, adding silly active desktop icons) or they can cause serious damage by deleting files and destroying information on your system. Trojans are also known to create a backdoor on your computer that gives malicious users access to your system, possibly allowing confidential or personal information to be compromised. Unlike viruses and worms, Trojans do not reproduce by infecting other files nor do they self-replicate.

Text alignment

The arrangement of text or graphics relative to a margin. Flush left alignment means that text is lined up along the left margin. Flush right alignment lines up text along the right margin. Centered alignment means that text is aligned around a midpoint. Justified alignment means that text lines up along both margins.

Twitter

A free social messaging tool that lets people stay connected through brief text message updates up to 140 characters in length. Twitter is based on you answering the question "What are you doing?" You then post thoughts, observations, and goings-on during the day. Your update is posted on your Twitter profile page through SMS text messaging, the Twitter Web site, instant messaging, RSS, e-mail, or through other social applications and sites, such as Facebook.

URL/ Web address

Abbreviation of Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. The first part of the address is called a protocol identifier and it indicates what protocol to use, and the second part is called a resource name and it specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located. The protocol identifier and the resource name are separated by a colon and two forward slashes.

Wi-Fi

The name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance, the organization that owns the Wi-Fi (registered trademark) term specifically defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards." Initially, Wi-Fi was used in place of only the 2.4GHz 802.11b standard, however the Wi-Fi Alliance has expanded the generic use of the Wi-Fi term to include any type of network or WLAN product based on any of the 802.11 standards, including 802.11b, 802.11a, dual-band, and so on, in an attempt to stop confusion about wireless LAN interoperability. Wi-Fi works with no physical wired connection between sender and receiver by using radio frequency (RF) technology, a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When an RF current is supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic field is created that then is able to propagate through space. The cornerstone of any wireless network is an access point (AP). The primary job of an access point is to broadcast a wireless signal  that computers can detect and "tune" into. In order to connect to an access point and join a wireless network, computers and devices must be equipped with wireless network adapters (See "How Wireless Networks Work" in the "Did You Know..." section of Webopedia).
Wi-Fi  is supported by many applications and devices including video game consoles, home networks, PDAs, mobile phones, major operating systems, and other types of consumer electronics.  Any products that are tested and approved as "Wi-Fi Certified" (a registered trademark) by the Wi-Fi Alliance are certified as interoperable with each other, even if they are from different manufacturers. For example, a user with a Wi-Fi Certified product can use any brand of access point with any other brand of client hardware that also is also "Wi-Fi Certified". Products that pass this certification are required to carry an identifying seal on their packaging that states "Wi-Fi Certified" and indicates the radio frequency band used (2.5GHz for 802.11b802.11g, or 802.11n, and 5GHz for 802.11a).

A common misconception is that the term Wi-Fi is short for "wireless fidelity," however this is not the case. Wi-Fi is simply a trademarked term meaning IEEE 802.11x.

Word processor

Using a computer to create, edit, and print documents. Of all computer applications, word processing is the most common. To perform word processing, you need a computer, a special program called a word processor, and a printer. A word processor enables you to create a document, store it electronically on a disk, display it on a screen, modify it by entering commands and characters from the keyboard, and print it on a printer.
The great advantage of word processing over using a typewriter is that you can make changes without retyping the entire document. If you make a typing mistake, you simply back up the cursor and correct your mistake. If you want to delete a paragraph, you simply remove it, without leaving a trace. It is equally easy to insert a word, sentence, or paragraph in the middle of a document. Word processors also make it easy to move sections of text from one place to another within a document, or between documents. When you have made all the changes you want, you can send the file to a printer to get a hardcopy.

Virus 

A computer virus attaches itself to a program or file enabling it to spread from one computer to another, leaving infections as it travels. Like a human virus, a computer virus can range in severity: some may cause only mildly annoying effects while others can damage your hardware, software or files. Almost all viruses are attached to an executable file, which means the virus may exist on your computer but it actually cannot infect your computer unless you run or open the malicious program. It is important to note that a virus cannot be spread without a human action, (such as running an infected program) to keep it going. People continue the spread of a computer virus, mostly unknowingly, by sharing infecting files or sending e-mails with viruses as attachments in the e-mail.

Worm 

A worm is similar to a virus by design and is considered to be a sub-class of a virus. Worms spread from computer to computer, but unlike a virus, it has the capability to travel without any human action. A worm takes advantage of file or information transport features on your system, which is what allows it to travel unaided.
The biggest danger with a worm is its capability to replicate itself on your system, so rather than your computer sending out a single worm, it could send out hundreds or thousands of copies of itself, creating a huge devastating effect. One example would be for a worm to send a copy of itself to everyone listed in your e-mail address book. Then, the worm replicates and sends itself out to everyone listed in each of the receiver's address book, and the manifest continues on down the line. 
Due to the copying nature of a worm and its capability to travel across networks the end result in most cases is that the worm consumes too much system memory (or network bandwidth), causing Web servers, network servers and individual computers to stop responding. In recent worm attacks such as the much-talked-about Blaster Worm, the worm has been designed to tunnel into your system and allow malicious users to control your computer remotely.

Zombie

A compromised computer that can be controlled remotely by another user by means of software agents, or robots, that run autonomously and automatically. Zombie computers can spread viruses, SPAM, or phishing messages without the computer’s owner realizing it is happening.


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